How would you describe the sentences in italics below?
A. What kind of sentences are they? They are obviously not simple subject-verb constructions or what are commonly called compound or complex –or even compound-complex sentences.
B. Do they work for you? Do you find them effective, easy to follow, descriptive, and maybe even at times evocative?
C. Are they grammatically correct?
1. A pungent odor of dried coriander and bay leaves permeated the room; the scent mixed with garlic, a hint of bread, and darker overtones.
2. Roman guards stood equally spaced at intervals along the wall, silhouetted against barrels of fire and the considerable light of the almost-full moon now setting on the horizon.
3. The Lower City rose to her left, white boxes with dark windows and door slits, tiered row upon row.
4. Sara moved through the street of the Lower City, holding an infrared flashlight that pulsed invisibly, something only Benjamin could see with the night vision goggles.
The quotations in italics above are from Amy Deardon’s novel A Lever Long Enough (©2009, availabe at Amazon.com, including for Kindle), a novel I recommend. They were picked at random.
Here are my answers:
A. They are called cumulative or loose sentences. I call the segments added onto the main clauses “add-ons” See more in the post here: http://keystowriting.com/2011/11/
B. Yes. Yes.
Modern English constantly transcends what is taught in many books on writing–certainly many books on grammar.
Contemporary published writers, including best-selling ones, use the types of phrases illustrated in the italicized quotations above constantly in their writing. And effectively too. Often with lyrical beauty approaching poetry and with descriptive power.
Are they part of your writing arsenal?
Recommended additional reading:
Best books and courses:
Notes Toward a Modern Rhethoric by Frances Crhistensen
A Modern Rhetoric by Frances Christensen and Bonniejean Christensen
Building Great Sentences by Brooks Landon, Ph.D., University of Iowa, 24-part lecture series, http://www.thegreatcourses.com by The Teaching Company.
lEARN VERSATILE PHRASES YOU CAN ADD into sentences making them both reader-friendly and a pleasure to read.
PART TWO IN THE “Vital Keys to the Modern English Sentence” SERIES
Read this sentence out loud, if you will…
In books on grammar and rhetoric, that example sentence above is called a loose sentence. It’s loose because those phrases added on after the main clause are not locked on. They are more like a dance than a military march.
In my previous post on the modern English sentence (http://keystowriting.com/2011/11/), I pointed out that it’s like a train. The main clause is the engine, and the freight cars that follow are loaded with specific meaning. But those freight cars can show up in a considerable variety.
I’ll keep my examples short so that we can focus on each individual add-on.
The most common is perhaps the participle phrase
Judy smiled enchantingly, twisting her ponytail with her fingers.
Above, Ttisting is a present participle. Add ing to the verb twist, and you have a participle.
Notice how twisting her ponytail with her fingers adds descriptive detail to the words smiled and enchantingly. I can better picture Judy in my mind.
Nouns work well too
Judy’s smile was enchanting, an invitation to dance.
The noun invitation and the words included next to it also describe what Joan’s smile was like. But the phrase an invitation to dance is built around the noun invitation. Phrases built on nouns and frequent in both fiction and nonfiction writings.
Nominative Absolutes are “people” too
This is a verbal phrase, usually containing a participle, but this time with a subject. Two examples…
She smiled, her palms turned upward in resignation. (past participle)
She smiled, her palms turning upward in resignation. (present participle)
A nominative absolute, in spite of its formidable title, is a useful writing device. It’s just like the participle phrase I described above with one exception: it has a subject.
In both examples above, her palms is the subject of the phrase. Her palms is the subject, and turned/turning are participles. The nominative absolute itself is almost, but definitely not quite, a clause or sentence. I could have written:
She smiled. Then she turned her palms upward…
That would have been two sentences. Two main clauses. Nominative absolutes are most common in fiction but can be effective in nonfiction too.
Prepositional Phrases are common too
Very frequent in writing. When they become elaborate, it is often best to punctuate them with commas, or maybe even occasionally dashes.
A. He ran, punching the air with his fists, down the dirt trail and around a bend, soon out of sight.
The main clause is, of course, He ran. As underlined above, there are three prepositional phrases, and the last is introduced by the adverb soon.
(Notice, too, the vivid participial phrase punching the air with his fists.)
I could have included all that information in separate and small sentences:
B. He ran full out. His fists punched the air. He dashed down the dirt trail. Soon he was around a bend. And then he was out of sight.
This second version is not necessarily bad. But do you see how more efficient and perhaps effective too the original version A above is?
Phrases built on Adverbs
She smiled shyly and enticingly.
The two adverbs above add to what the author meant by smiled.
Phrases built on Adjectives
Bald Mountain looked formidable, tall and steep.
Most but not all
These are the most of common add-ons. Certainly there are others.
But for now compare the two following segments.
1. He was tired. Exhausted really. His sat slumped in the chair. His arms hung limply down at the sides. They were pale white and dead-looking.
2. He was tired, exausted really, slumped in his chair, his hands hanging limply at the sides, pale-white and looking dead.
Which is better?
Is either a bad piece of writing? Well, I hope not since I wrote them! But is number 1 above better than number 2? Not necessarily. It depends on a number of things but primarily the effect you want to create with your writing.
Perhaps the best point to make here is that I think that it’s a good idea to know your options. Better yet: practice them so that they come readily to mind when you’re writing.
Now let’s re-visit that first example sentence I started with above, this time naming the phrases:
In the morning we went out into a new world (main clause),
a glistening crystal and white world (noun phrase built on world),
each skeleton tree (noun phrase),
each leafless bush (noun phrase),
even the heavy, drooping power lines sheathed in icy crystal (nominative absolute built on the past participle sheathed)
When you read, be alert for these types of additions. Check how well they work. Also, if you will practice this modern sentence, with its various possible additions, you will soon discover how versatile and effective they can be.
The modern English sentence makes for some powerful writing.
Part I Let’s hear it for the occasional long sentence!
It’s a beauty
The modern English sentence is beautiful and elegant because it flows they way we think. It is more intuitive than being confined to merely the simple, complex, compound, and compound-complex sentence options of yesteryear. And it’s more powerful.
It’s like a train
The modern English sentence I’m talking about resembles a train. You have the engine at the front, the main clause.
The officer marched into the village.
But you can also add a number of cars following that engine–in fact, quite a good idea. And these freight cars carry the goods–in many contemporary sentences that’s where much of the meaning is communicated. Now let’s add to the above example sentence:
The officer marched into the village, his AK-47 at the ready pointing forward, his soldiers following close behind, a small but formidable combat unit.
Permit me to diagram that sentence above it so its structure is more obvious:
The officer marched into the village,
His AK-47 at the ready pointing forward,
His soldiers close behind,
A small but formidable combat unit.
It also works with Non-fiction:
The above sentence reads like fiction, doesn’t it? Actually, it is fiction. and it’s starting to get a bit long, but is it clear? I think so.
So now let’s look at a non-fiction sentence. I’ll improvise on some of my wiring above:
The modern English sentence is like a train: It has its engine, and it has its freight cars, trailing behind, adding valuable cargo (meaning), often essential actually and clarifying.
Three more brief examples…
This time from Ali Luke’s just-published novel Lycopolis (available in a Kindle edition and soon as a paperback):
Brandon watched him, trying to fathom him out. [Added participial phrase. Kindle edition, location 1392]
Brandon especially enjoyed puzzles, with things to solve. (Added prepositional phrase. Again, Kindle location 1392]
Brandon still disliked being alone in the silence – though he could sleep if he whispered strings of primes into the darkness, backwards and forwards, until the room buzzed with numbers. [The added backwards and forwards is a couple of adverbs, call it an “adverb cluster”; and until the room… is an added adverbial clause. Kindle edition: at location 1353-1354]
(More on the types of additions in my soon-coming blog on this topic, Part II.)
Don’t be too choppy
Modern style–influenced I suspect by copywriting techniques, TV ad video clips addressing a rather short, contemporary attention span–with its frequent very short phrases and even single words punctuated as sentences–can easily get a bit choppy unless we writers take care to include variety in the lengths of our sentences.
Learning this style can be freeing, providing you with formidable weapons for your writing-style arsenal. It can also provide you skill for adding rich texture and meaning into your sentences when you wish to.
Faulkner did it
Faulkner could write sentences that go for a whole page before adding that period. Yet they were in fact simple sentences (by definition, that is not compound or complex or even compound-complex–just a main clause with many add-ons), and all of them perfectly clear and reader-friendly. So could Thomas Wolfe. Even Hemingway wrote sentences like the one I used as an illustration above.
A challenge for you…
Roy Peter Clark in his fine, fairly recent book Writing Tools, 50 Essential Strategies for Every Writer, says this:
Until the writer tries to master the long sentence, she is not writer at all, for while length makes a bad sentence worse, it can make a good sentence better. (Page 36)
Augment your versatility.
Master the long sentence as well as the modern chopped up sentence (and I’m not knocking sentence fragments punctuated as sentences–I use them myself!).
A couple of Promises…
It takes a bit of practice, but if you learn to write this way (assuming you haven’t already!), I promise you this: it can be a freeing experience. I think you will find that your writing sings at times like poetry. And I also think you will find that your efforts at writing such sentences can actually generate ideas and enable you to pack those sentences with vivid details and clarifying illustrations, and much much more-at will.
Number 2 Challenge for you…
When you read, be alert for this sentence type (called by some “the loose sentence” in contrast to tight, formal ones). See how often it appears and how effectively it works.
Suggested Further Reading:
Note– Both of the two following books are out of print and often hard to find but ‘worth their weight in gold.’
Notes Toward A New Rhetoric, 6 Essays for Teachers by Francis Christensen (Harper and Row, 1967)
A Modern Rhetoric by Francis Christensen (Harper and Row, 1976)– Professor Christensen’s master work.
Writing Tools, 50 Essential Strategies for every Writer by Roy Peter Clark ((Little, Brown and Company, 2006)
Garner’s Modern American Usage by Bryan A. Garner (Oxford University Press, 3rd Ed., 2009)
100 Ways to Improve your Writing by Gary Provost (Signet, 1985)